- Usually translated into English as “acceleration,” uskoreniie is derived from Russian skorost’ (speed), and is used to denote the modernization of the Soviet economy with the purpose of achieving higher efficiency and flexibility. Yury Andropov originally used the term in 1982 in an effort to summarize his attempts to reverse the Soviet Union’s economic stagnation under Leonid Brezhnev. However, the concept gained greater usage under Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. The new premier linked economic reform to the Soviet Union’s national security by stressing the need for innovative thinking, a shift away from heavy industry, competitiveness in the world market, modernization of economic institutions, and improvement of social conditions. He launched his plan for uskoreniie with the 12th Five-Year plan, which covered the period from 1986 to 1990. Gorbachev linked successful acceleration to the human factor (chelovecheskii faktor), which he felt was vital to improving the international position of the Soviet Union vis-à-vis the First World; as such, the anti-alcoholism campaign was an early salvo in the larger program. In order to further accelerate the economy, Gorbachev introduced a number of other interlinked policies, including perestroika, glasnost, informatization, and democratization.
Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010.
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Andropov, Yury Vladimirovich — (1914–1984) Politician. Born to a father of a Don Cossack noble family and a mother of ethnic German origin, Yury Andropov was orphaned in his teens. He joined the Komsomol youth organization and became a member of the Communist Party of the… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Chernenko, Konstantin Ustinovich — (1911–1985) Politician. Born to a miner and a farmer in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Chernenko joined the Komsomol youth organization in the mid 1920s. After gaining membership in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), he took a number of… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Communist Party of the Soviet Union — (CPSU) Political party. Known in Russian as Kommunisticheskaia partiia Sovetskogo Soiuza, the CPSU was formed by the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, which was established in 1898. Under the leadership of… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Eastern Bloc — Also known as the Soviet Bloc, the Eastern Bloc was the geopolitical region that included the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its Eastern European satellites. At the end of World War II, the Red Army liberated much of Europe… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Economy — With the exception of a brief period of entrepreneurial experimentation under Vladimir Lenin’s “New Economic Policy” (NEP) from 1921 to 1928, the Soviet economy was historically dominated by the state. Joseph Stalin’s centrally planned… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Education — As was the case under the Soviet regime, education in Russia is predominantly provided by the state and is regulated by the Federal Ministry of Education through a nationwide curriculum and examinations. Several education reforms have occurred … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Glasnost — Glasnost was the policy of introducing and maximizing openness, transparency, and publicity of government, military, and media institutions in the Soviet Union. It was introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev as part of his philosophy of the country’s… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Globalization — Russia has an ambiguous position on globalization, which can be defined as the interdependency that results from commercial, cultural, economic, and political interaction between states and nonstate actors driven by sustained linkages of goods … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich — (1931– ) Born in a village in Stavropol Krai, Mikhail Gorbachev experienced both the privations of Joseph Stalin’s purges and World War II, losing relatives in both. He proved to be an excellent student and was awarded a law degree from Moscow … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Industry — Russia’s industrial infrastructure is dominated by the country’s Stalinist experiment in rapid industrialization. During the 1930s, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) transformed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation